Abstract: The Geologic Time Scale is the framework for deciphering and understanding the history of our planet.
Basic chemistry is important to all sciences, especially geology!
Everything around us is made of chemical compounds that have testable and identifying characteristics, allowing them to be classified, and their age determined.
This also applies to rocks, minerals, and derivative materials (such as sediments and soil).
The chemical composition of Earth's crust has similarities with other stony planets, with silicate-rich rocks being dominant in most locations on the surface.
’s rocks are composed of minerals—inorganic elements or compounds that have a fixed chemical composition and that are made up of regularly aligned rows of atoms.
The science of geology is founded on basic principles that are useful for making observations about the world around us.
This chapter presents a mix of information that is essential (fundamental) to all following chapters.
This chapter is an introduction to rocks and minerals, and the rock cycle.
In addition, basic geologic principles can be applied to resolving the order of events leading to the formation of rocks and landscape features. Cross Sections - interpretations of vertical views of geologic features below the surface.
This section presents many basic concepts that are universal to all physical sciences.1. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic (never living) solid with a definite internal arrangement of atoms (crystal structure) and a chemical formula that only varies over a limited range that does not alter the crystal structure.
What are "rocks" and "minerals" - explain the differences. Describe essential concepts of chemistry related to earth materials. What is the chemical and mineral composition of the Earth's crust? List some common silicate and nonsilicate minerals. Describe and illustrate the "rock cycle" as it relates to processes and products. Describe basic geologic principles for interpreting landscape forming processes. On Earth, more than 4,000 minerals have been identified, however, of those fewer than 2 dozen are common minerals in Earth's physical environment (Figure 1-1 shows common rock-forming minerals).